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As a result of Reveal reporter Will Evans’ investigation into injuries at Amazon warehouses across the country last year, sources shared a trove of internal records, giving an unprecedented view into the company’s safety record. 

Based on those records, Reveal found that Amazon has misled the public about its safety record, which has been getting worse, with injury rates increasing every year between 2016 and 2019.

In this collaboration with PBS NewsHour, Evans takes a closer look at Amazon’s public claims and private internal documents.  


Reporter: Will Evans

Producer: Rachel de Leon

Senior Producer and Editor: David Ritsher

Executive Producer: Amanda Pike

Managing Editor: Andrew Donohue

Data Editor: Soo Oh

Special Thanks: Melissa Lewis

Videographers: Brandon Carter, Paul Mailman, Rachel de Leon, Rafael Roy, Thaad Sabolboro

Assistant Camera: Demetrio Nasol, Blake Sinnock, Maurice Morales, Vanessa Ochavillo

Production Assistant: Vanessa Ochavillo

Legal Counsel: Victoria Baranetsky

Consulting Producer: Katharine Mieszkowski

Executive Editor: Esther Kaplan

Editor in Chief: Matt Thompson

Funding thanks to The Rogovy Foundation


Will Evans:

Last November, Reveal and the PBS NewsHour published an investigation about workplace safety at Amazon fulfillment centers across the country. We found workers exposed to a gas leak in a southern California warehouse and a man crushed to death by a forklift in Indiana.

That reporting led to sources giving Reveal a trove of documents never before made public – four years of weekly injury numbers for more than 150 Amazon fulfillment centers nationwide, along with hundreds of pages of Amazon’s internal safety memos. These documents give an unprecedented look into how many workers have been injured and how Amazon is responding. 

According to Amazon’s own records, last year it had more than 14,000 serious injuries – meaning the injury prevented the worker from doing their usual job. The rate of these injuries was nearly twice the industry average. 

Many of these injuries are similar to those suffered by Candice Dixon, from our original report. 
Candice Dixon:I had a full shift of all heavy items. That’s what happened. I got injured. I pulled my back out.
Will Evans:Dixon couldn’t work at Amazon anymore because of her injury. Now, more than two years later, her workers’ comp settlement has run out and she says she’s still in pain. 
Candice Dixon:Like, I can’t stand for too long. I can’t sit for too long. I don’t know what else to do. I guess it’s just gonna be a problem that I’m going to have forever.
Will Evans:Amazon portrays its warehouses as safe and getting better. Safety is its “number one priority” and its “safety culture is built on a philosophy of continuous improvement,” an Amazon executive wrote to 15 senators in February. 
But its safety record has been getting worse. Internal records show that its injury rate has increased every single year between 2016 and 2019. 
And our latest trove of internal documents shows Amazon knowingly misled the public about safety issues at its warehouses. 

Let’s take a closer look at these safety claims. First, Amazon claims that robots they’ve introduced to many warehouses help improve safety. Amazon’s CEO of Worldwide Consumer Business Jeff Wilke touted the robots last year. 
Jeff Wilke:So what happens is the robots change the work so they allow us- people don’t have to walk as far, which is a complaint that we’ve heard in the past. They make the job safer.
Will Evans:But Amazon’s own records don’t back that up. Overall, warehouses with robots actually had higher injury rates. In fact, the rate of serious injuries at the most common type of fulfillment center was more than 50 percent higher at robotic warehouses. 

Workers and former safety managers have told us robots increase the speed of production so employees have to go faster. This can lead to repetitive stress injuries and safety shortcuts that result in accidents. 

And Amazon has insisted that injury rates do not go up during its busiest shopping times, Prime Day and the holidays. 

Last year, Amazon told us “the rate of injury has historically decreased or been stable during these two times.” 

That’s false. According to Amazon’s own records, injury rates have spiked during the weeks of Cyber Monday and Amazon’s own holiday, Prime Day. 

And finally, Amazon says its injury rates are high due to “an aggressive stance on recording injuries – no matter how big or small,” according to a letter sent to lawmakers this year.

But internal memos and interviews reveal that Amazon has tried to lower injury rates by controlling the medical care injured workers receive at several fulfillment centers. 

For example, at this Colorado fulfillment center, Amazon attributed its high injury rates to the medical providers who gave injured workers treatment that required Amazon to record them for OSHA, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. So Amazon terminated the use of an occupational clinic and switched to another. 

Medical Provider:It was more or less understood that if too many of these injuries were being recordable, that it would put the contract with that company at risk.
Will Evans:This medical provider who asked to remain anonymous for fear of retaliation, used to work for Colorado-based Advanced Urgent Care & Occupational Medicine, the clinic Amazon switched to in April of 2019. Amazon’s own injury numbers show that once the company changed clinics, injury rates at the warehouse went down. 
Will Evans:You had a bunch of different clients, but Amazon was different. 
Medical Provider:Amazon felt different. You know, when an Amazon patient would come in, I mean, I would feel a little more burdened, maybe a little more anxious about what sort of care I would  want to provide, but maybe would think twice about providing and I began to feel more pressure from my supervisors to try to make these claims not recordable. 
Will Evans:So that means changing how you treat them, right?
Medical Provider:So, for example, we’re encouraged to not put any of Amazon’s patients on work leave for their first visit. 
Will Evans:He left the clinic last year. Looking at the clinic’s current website, he criticized some of the language. 
Medical Provider:“When the injury can be cared for without becoming OSHA recordable, it’s good for both the employer and the injured employee.”

Will Evans:
The bottom line is if a patient requires a certain level of care, then that’s the care that they should receive. And whether or not that claim is recordable should be an afterthought. 
Two other Advanced medical providers also said they were pressured to keep Amazon’s injuries off the books. I got a hold of the owner of Advanced, Tony Euser, who told me that wasn’t the clinic’s protocol. 
Tony Euser:That was never a policy of our company. That was never an under-the-table policy of our company.
Will Evans:Euser says that after this year, he will stop providing workers’ comp services to companies – including Amazon. 
Tony Euser:We have actually determined that this whole juggling process with companies isn’t worth it. It’s just too much hassle factor of trying to balance between the employees and employers. And it’s not worth it. 
Will Evans:While Amazon sends some injured workers to clinics like Euser’s, other employees have a hard time getting even that level of care. 

Former medical officer for OSHA, Kathleen Fagan investigated Amazon for years and found the company was using its in-house EMTs to give workers improper medical care. 
Kathleen Fagan:Amazon was trying to prevent workers from seeing a doctor outside. We saw evidence in the medical records of EMTs or supervisors discouraging their workers from seeking medical care. 
Will Evans:What’s the result of that for the workers? 
Kathleen Fagan:

Will Evans:
For instance, there was a young woman who was moving a pallet and there was dust that flew in her eye. They flushed her eye out and sent her back to work. After a few more days, went to see an eye doctor who had to remove an embedded wood chip from her eye.
We asked Amazon about its safety claims and how its own internal memos and injury numbers contradict their statements. Amazon declined repeated requests to be interviewed and refused to directly answer our questions. 

They sent a general written statement saying “Nothing is more important than the health and safety of our teams. So far in 2020, we have committed over $1B in new investments in […] safety measures.” 
Amazon spokespeople sent out an additional statement saying it’s misleading to judge their workplace safety based solely on the number of injuries.
“We strongly refute the claims that we’ve misled anyone. We obsess about our employees and their safety.”

Will Evans:We showed our findings to Congresswoman Pramila Jayapal, whose district houses Amazon’s headquarters in Seattle.  

Do you have concerns about Amazon’s ability to tell the public and lawmakers the truth?
Rep. Pramila Jayapal:That’s at the crux of all of this, even for me as a lawmaker, and it’s what troubles me. I don’t know that the information I’m getting from Amazon is accurate because mostly Amazon denies that anything is happening and says that there is a vast network of people who are simply reporting on things to make them look bad. I-I just don’t believe that.
Will Evans:Amazon’s stock has surged more than 60 percent this year, and last month the company said it’s recruiting another 100,000 employees to keep up with demand during the pandemic. 
We don’t yet know how the increase in online shopping during the pandemic has affected Amazon’s injury numbers. But with Prime Day this month and peak holiday shopping around the corner, workers are facing the season that has had some of the highest spikes in injuries. 
For the PBS NewsHour and Reveal, I’m Will Evans in Emeryville, California.  

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Will Evans was a senior reporter and producer for Reveal, covering labor and tech. His reporting prompted government investigations, legislation, reforms and prosecutions. A series on working conditions at Amazon warehouses was a finalist for a Pulitzer Prize and won a Gerald Loeb Award. His work has also won multiple Investigative Reporters and Editors Awards, including for a series on safety problems at Tesla. Other investigations exposed secret spying at Uber, illegal discrimination in the temp industry and rampant fraud in California's drug rehab system for the poor. Prior to joining The Center for Investigative Reporting in 2005, Evans was a reporter at The Sacramento Bee.

Rachel de Leon is a reporter and producer for TV and documentaries for Reveal. De Leon has worked in video for more than 10 years as a videographer and producer. Throughout 2017, she was the coordinating producer for Glassbreaker Films – an initiative from The Center for Investigative Reporting to support female filmmakers – helping to produce five half-hour documentaries for national and festival distribution, and more than 20 online minidocumentaries. In 2016, she won two Emmys for her work on the web series "The Dead Unknown" and the PBS NewsHour segment "Deadly Oil Fields." In 2014, she completed her first short documentary, “Cab City,” for her master’s thesis in the documentary program at the UC Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism. De Leon is based in Reveal’s Emeryville, California, office.